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Introduction to Braille Mathematics



Unified English Braille (UEB) is the standard Braille code used for English-speaking countries. When it comes to math, UEB includes symbols and conventions to represent mathematical expressions accurately.

 

  • Numbers:

Numbers in UEB are formed with the letters “a (1)” through “j (0)”, preceded by the numeric indicator. The numeric indicator must be used before each number to prevent confusion with a letter. The numeric indicator cell: ⠼, Example “5”: ⠼⠑ (number indicator, 5) 

 

  • Basic Operations:

Signs of operation are formed with two cells, a prefix and a root.

Addition: The "+" symbol is used with two cells: ⠐⠖

Subtraction: The "-" symbol is used with two cells: ⠐⠤

Multiplication: The "×" symbol is used with two cells: ⠐⠦

Division: The "÷" symbol is used with two cells: ⠐⠌

Example 3+5 is represented by: ⠼⠉⠐⠖⠼⠑ (number indicator, 3, plus indicators, number indicator, 5) 

 

  • Fractions:

Represent fractions by placing the numerator and denominator in a fraction indicator.

Example ½ is represented by ⠼⠁⠌⠃ (number indicator, 1, fraction indicator, 2) 

 

  • Exponents and Indices:

Use the superscript indicator before the Braille cells representing the exponent or index. Example: " g² " is represented by ⠼⠊⠔⠼⠃ (number indicator, g, superscript indicator, number indicator, 2).

 

  • Roots:

Indicate roots by using the radical sign followed by the number or expression inside the radical. Example: The square root of 16 is represented by ⠰⠩⠼⠁⠋⠬ (grade I mode, open radical sign, number indicator, 1, 6, close radical sign).

 

  • Equations:

Use the equals sign ("=") to indicate equations. Expressions on both sides of the equals sign are written out in Braille cells.

Example: "5+2 = 7" is represented by ⠼⠑⠐⠖⠼⠃⠀⠐⠶⠀⠼⠛ (number indicator, 5, plus signs, 2, space, equal signs, space, number indicator, 7).

 

  • Integrals:

An integral is a mathematical object that is used to calculate an area under a functions curve. The integral symbol is formed with cell .

Example  x²dx is represented by⠰⠰⠮⠭⠔⠼⠃⠰⠙⠭ (grade I word indicators, integral indicator, x, superscript, number indicator, 2, grade I mode, d, x).

 

These examples cover basic math elements, but there are specific Braille codes for more complex mathematical symbols and expressions. It's recommended to consult a comprehensive Unified English Braille manual for a complete understanding and guidance in using Braille for mathematical content.

 

ABILITY horizon project is currently developing a Braille technology to support visually impaired individuals in learning mathematics. Our innovation focuses on implementing the Unified English Braille (UEB) math code, ensuring an inclusive and efficient platform for blind students to access mathematical concepts seamlessly. By combining cutting-edge technology with UEB standards, our goal is to enhance the educational experience and foster independence in math learning for individuals with visual impairments.




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